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Ronaldo, the 2016 and 2017 winner, won a fifth Champions League title with Real Madrid in May before joining Juventus for £99.2m.
Real midfielder Luka Modric was awarded World Cup 2018's player of the tournament as Croatia as the runner-up in the world cup.
Egypt forward Salah scored 44 goals as Liverpool reached the Champions League final, against Real Madrid.
Modric beat Ronaldo and Salah to win the Uefa Men's Player of the Year last week in UEFA draw.
Harry Kane, has also missed out.who won the World Cup Golden Boot and was on the original 10-man shortlist,
Didier Deschamps, who led France to the World Cup, is nominated for coach of the year, alongside Croatia's Zlatko Dalic and former Real Madrid boss Zinedine Zidane.
A panel of Fifa officials and experts made a 10-man shortlists for each award and a jury consisting of national team captains, coaches, selected journalists and fans choose the winner, each group accounting for 25% of the vote.
The winners will be announced on 24 September at Royal Festival Hall in London.
Men's playerCristiano Ronaldo - Juventus & Portugal
Luka Modric - Real Madrid & Croatia
Mohamed Salah - Liverpool & Egypt
Women's playerAda Hegerberg - Lyon & Norway
Dzsenifer Marozsan - Lyon & Germany
Marta - Orlando Pride & Brazil
Men's coachZlatko Dalic - Croatia
Didier Deschamps - France
Zinedine Zidane - former Real Madrid
Women's coachReynald Pedros - Lyon
Asako Takakura - Japan
Sarina Wiegman - Netherlands
GoalkeeperThibaut Courtois - Real Madrid & Belgium
Hugo Lloris - Tottenham & France
Kasper Schmeichel - Leicester & Denmark